In the second stage, the external validity of the scales was examined by determining the relationship between the scales and demographic, clinical, and communication characteristics:
TABLE 5: DEMOGRAPHIC MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE (n = 1000)
|Mean or N||SD or %|
|Age in Years||Mean = 57.9||SD = 13.6|
|Gender: Female||N = 549||54.9%|
|White / Caucasian||N = 773||77.3%|
|At least some College||N = 742||74.2%|
|Married||N = 559||55.9%|
Age: The n = 1000 study sample averages about 58 years (57.9 years) of age , but spans the entire range of ages from 19 years to 79 years.
Gender: The sample is about half female.
Ethnics: Mostly White / Caucasian.
Education: Most respondents in this sample had at least ‘some’ college education (74.2%).
Married: About half of the sample (55.9%) is married.
(1) The selection of the sample by IPSOS (the responsible agency) appears to over-represent somewhat the higher socio-economic status (‘SES’) in relation to the ‘total population’ of ‘persons with diabetes type II’.
(2) This, however, appears to be a more or less representative sample for ‘persons with diabetes type II actively dealing with diabetes management. This fact justifies the use of this sample for practical purposes, i.e., the development of the ’InDiMa Communication System’ and the derived systems for the ‘InDiMa Technological Platform’.
(3) A modified set of psychometric analyses could be performed on the basis of a (reduced) representative sample out of these n = 1’000 respondents. It appears likely that the basic findings and factor-/scale-structure will be identical.
TABLE 6: CLINICAL DIABETES CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE (n = 1000)
|Mean or N||SD or %|
|Duration of Diabetes
< 2 years 2 – 5 years 6 – 10 years 11 – 20 years 21+ years
|Type I Diabetes||99||9.9%|
Diet and exercise
|Insulin prescribed at first diagnosis||163||16.3%|
|BMI* (Body Mass Index)||33.6||8.2|
* N = 57 are missing BMI
The sample has a wide range of years experiencing diabetes with the majority of the sample endorsing at least 6 years of duration:
- 10 percent of the sample has Type I diabetes (n = 100).
- 90% of the sample has Type II diabetes (n = 900).
- 16% were prescribed insulin at first diagnosis of diabetes. Lastly the sample is largely obese, with an average BMI of about 34 years, with a wide range from 17 to 68 years.